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1. The Pace For Living -R.C. Hutchinson


Q.1. How does the writer classify himself as a thinker ?

Ans. The writer classifies himself as a slow thinker because he? had to face many problems.


Q.2. Who was the chief character of the play ‘The Pace for Living’

Ans. The chief character was an elderly corn-merchant in a small irish country town.


Q.3. Does the writer dislike rapid movement in every field ?

Ans. The writer, R.C. Hutchinson, does not dislike rapid movement in every field. He enjoys going in a car at ninety miles an hour. He is fascinated by the aeroplanes flying at amazing speeds. He dislikes rapid speed of mental activities which follow the pace of machines.


Q.4. In which situation does the writer find himself in the cinema ?

Ans. When the writer goes to the cinema, he finds himself in a hopeless situation. He cannot follow the fast movement of the story and rapid changes of scene and action. He has to seek his wife’s help in order to keep up with the rapid movement of the plot.


Q.5. What does R.C. Hutchinson say about the intelligence tests ?

Ans. R.C. Hutchinson says that the intelligence tests are designed to measure the speed of human mind. They do not indicate the knowledge of a man. They show how fast a man can think. So, they do not measure all the mental faculties.


Q.6.What are the disadvantages of slow thinkers in the modern world ?

Ans. According to R.C. Hutchinson, slow thinkers cannot adjust their mental activities to the rapid pace of modern life. So, they are terribly handicapped in getting a living. They are left behind in the race of good jobs.


Q.7. Where did the writer watch the play? Who was the { chief character in the play ?

Ans. The writer, R.C. Hutchinson, watched the play in Dublin. The chief character in the play was an elderly corn-merchant in a small Irish town.


Q.8. Life has become too fast today, how ?

Ans. This essays ‘The Pace of Living conveys that today our life has become too fast but often it does not satisfy us. So, we need to make a balance between our life and thoughts. Only earning, spending and working more are not enough for a happy and peaceful life. One should not forget the art of happy living. One should remember that he is a human and not a machine.


Q. 9. What sort of excitement do we have today which our ancestors lack? Is it an advantage or a disadvantage?

Ans. The life-style of modern people has become very fast. Now we have great facilities for rapid movement. In the modern age cars, trains and aeroplanes can carry us to different places hurriedly. Fast travel gives us a sense of drama and excitement which our ancestors. lacked.
This sort of excitement is an advantage but it excludes all the real pleasures of travel.


Q.10. Who are taken to be slow thinkers? How are the slow thinkers, handicapped today?

Ans. The people whose mental activities do not follow the pace of the machines are taken to be slow thinkers. The slow thinkers are handicapped today in getting a living. They find it difficult to get a good job because they do not adjust to the fast pace of life.


Q. 11. What enlightenment does the writer seek from his wife? What does it suggest about the plight of the modern man ?

Ans. He asks his wife whether the girl he was watching in the cinema was the same who was at first. It suggests that the modern man is not able to know his surrounding very well. He is too involved in the surrounding of his problems due to which he is not able to live his life in peace and harmony.


Q.12. “They tell me there’s an aeroplane now that goes at 1,000 miles an hour. Now that’s too fast!” What light does the remark of the corn-merchant throw on the pace life today?

Ans. The above remark shows that today man’s life has become very fast. In fact, it is getting faster each day and due to which no one is satisfied with his life. Today people are able to earn well but don’t have enough time to spend it. It seems that today’s life has become like a machine.


Q. 13. What does writer say about the elderly corn-merchant ?

Ans. Once R. C. Hutchinson saw a play in Dublin, the main character in the play was an elderly corn-merchant who lived in a small Irish country town. He had several anxieties. He was weak hearted and his nephew was cheating him. He was tired of the fast pace of life.

2. Me And The Ecology Bit


Q.1. How many blocks away was the post office from Mr. Johnson’s house ?

Ans. The post office was just two blocks away from Mr. Johnson’s house.


Q.2. What form of electricity did the narrator use?

Ans. The narrator used his motorbike all summer and his snowbike all winter.


Q. 3. What happens when the narrator calls Ms. Greene, ‘Mrs. Greene’?

Ans. When the narrator calls Ms. Greene, ‘Mrs. Greene,’ she says that she doesn’t have any change to pay him.


Q. 4. Does Jim understand why. his. advice is being questioned? Explain.

Ans. Yes, Jim understands, why his advice is being questioned. He knows that working for ecology is a tough job.


Q.5. What happened to the tree referred to by Mr. Johnson?

Ans. The tree referred to by Mr. Johnson has been cut down. This shows the greed of humans which is destroying our environment.


Q.6. Do you think that Jim is a real ecology friendly boy? .. Give your own opinion.

Ans. No, I don’t think that Jim is a real ecology friendly boy because he speaks a lot about preservation of ecology but himself increases pollution.


Q. 7. Which Animal messes up Ms. Greene’s yard?

Ans. When Jim visits Ms. Greene’s house, she complains to him against his dog. She tells him that his dog digs up her garden and messes up her yard. She advises him to keep his dog on a leash.


Q. 8. ‘Sure it is hard to get people to work for ecology.’ Do you agree with this statement?

Ans. I agree with this statement made by Jim in the piece ‘Me and the Ecology Bit’. Ecology preservation should be everybody’s concern. People are in favour of it but nobody wants to do anything about it. So, it is hard to get people to work for ecology.


Q.9. What is ecology? Is it essential to preserve it?

Ans. Ecology means the natural relationship between living things and the environment. It is essential to preserve it because the growth and survival of plants and living creatures depend on it. Ecological imbalance has created serious problems in the modern age.


Q.10. What does the narrator do on Saturdays and Sundays?

Ans. The narrator is quite aware of the advantages of ecology preservation. He works for ecology on Saturday and Sunday. He visits the houses in his locality and collects garbage on these days,


Q.11. Did the narrator succeed in getting Ms. Greene to do something about ecology ?

Ans, Jim tried to convince Ms. Greene that she must not throw the newspapers and aluminium cans away but she did not listen to him. Jim did not succeed in getting her to do something about ecology.


Q.12. Why did Mr. Johnson think that Jim did not follow the principle of walking?

Ans. Mr. Johnson thought that Jim did not follow the principle of walking because Jim drove his motorbike round and round his backyard all summer. Jim only talked about the advantages of 1.walking: He did not walk himself.


Q. 13. Why does Jim ask Ms. Greene to save paper and – aluminium cans?

Ans. When Jim visits Ms. Greene’s house, he sees her piling old newspapers near the garbage bags. She wants them to be thrown away. Jim advises her to keep the newspapers for the school so that they can be used for making new paper. He asks her to save aluminium cans, too, for recycling.,


Q.14. What does Jim do on Saturdays and Sundays?

Ans. Jim is a schoolboy who is aware of the advantages of: ecology preservation. He works for ecology on Saturdays and Sundays. He visits the houses in his locality and collects garbage. on these days.,


Q.15. What is Jim’s advice to Mr. Williams?

Ans. When Jim goes to Mr. William’s house, he sees him burning leaves in the backyard. He advises Mr. Williams not to burn the leaves because burning leaves pollutes the air. He tells him that he should make a compost pile which will be good manure for the garden.


Q.16. ‘Nobody’s willing to do anything about ecology.’ Do you agree with the statement.

Ans. This statement is made by Jim, the main character in the story ‘Me and the Ecology Bit’. He collects garbage from the houses of his neighbours and tries to convince them that ecology preservation is essential. But he himself does not follow the rules of ecology preservation.
I agree with this statement because people preach about ‘ecology but they do not work for its preservation.


Q. 17. ‘Sure it is hard to get people to work for ecology.’ Do you agree with this statement? What is ecology? What measures have you and your school taken to preserve it?

Ans. Yes, I agree with the statement, ‘sure it is hard to get people to work for ecology,’ Ecology is the science that deals with the relationship of humans with environment. We plant trees and — make people aware about the environment and its importance.


Q. 18. “But anyhow, on Saturday when I collect, I put in a good word on ecology.” This is the narrator’s way of preserving ecology. How are you contributing to ecological preservation in your surrounding?

Ans. I try to use the available resources when I really can’t do without them. I plant trees and stop deforestation. I also throw the garbage properly.

3. Gillu -Mahadevi Verma


Q.1. What is the life-span of squirrels ?

Ans. Squirrels have a life-span of barely two years,


Q. 2. Who started calling the tiny baby Squirrel as Gillu?

Ans. The writer and his family members started calling him ‘Gillu’.


Q. 3. What was Gillu’s favourite food ? How would Gillu inform that he was hungry?

Ans. Kaju was Gillu’s favourite food. Gillu would inform that he was hungry by twiterring ‘chik-chik’.


Q. 4. Which ointment was applied on the wounds of the tiny baby squirrel?

Ans. Penicilin ointment was applied on the wounds of the tiny baby squirrel.


Q.5. What prompted the narrator to set Gillu free?

Ans. Seeing Gillu sitting near the window and affectionately, peering at the world outside, made narrater to set Gillu free.


Q.6. When was the Gillu’s swing taken off ?

Ans. His (Gillu) swing was taken off after his death.


Q. 7. How would Gillu. inform the narrator that he was hungry?

Ans. When Gillu was hungry, he would inform the narrator by twittering ‘chik-chik’.


Q.8. What does the transformation from the common to proper noun imply? What difference does a name make?

Ans. It implies that now the squirrel got a proper distinction. A name gives one a personal identity and brings ‘close to others.


Q. 9. How did Mahadevi Verma treat the wounded squirrel ?

Ans. Mahadevi Verma gently lifted the wounded squirrel and brought him to her room. She w I the blood from his wound’s with cotton wool and applied Penicillin ointment. She treated him kindly.


Q. 10. How did Gillu make himself cool in summer?

Ans. To tackle the summer beat; Gillu had discovered a totally new method. He would lie prostrate on the surahi kept near the author and thus remain both close to the author as well as be cool.


Q. 11. How did Gillu nurse the narrator during her! indisposition?

Ans. When the narrator was indisposed owing to a motor car accident, Gillu nursed her like an attendant. He would sit near her, head on her pillow and gently stroke her forehead and hair.


Q.12. How did Gillu sustain wounds?

Ans. Gillu was a tiny baby squirrel. One day, he fell down from a nest near a flowerpot on the verandah of Mahadevi Verma. Two crows saw him. He sustained wounds when they poked their beaks at him.


Q.13. What did the narrator do with the wounded squirrel?

Ans. The narrator gently lifted the wounded squirrel up and brought him to her room. After wiping blood from his wounds with cotton wool, she applied Penicillin ointment. After serveral hours, the narrator managed to pour one drop of water in his mouth.


Q. 14. Do you have any pet bird? How does it show concern for you?

Ans. Yes, I have a parrot. He is very close to me. I call him Sonu. He makes sounds of excitment when he sees me and when he does not find me arround him he becomes dull and inactive. When I come from outside it tells one to take rest and also arranges nuts for me from his share.


Q. 15. What did the narrator feel at the death of Gillu? Describe his feelings in your own words.

Ans.’Gillu’ had become a part of the writer’s life. She felt very sorrowful at his death. She felt loosing something very special. He was not able to forget it. She did all the ceremonies so that his soul could get peace after death. To it was like loosing a family member and so she did all what a family member does at one’s death.


Q. 16. Gillu took little food during the indisposition of the narrator. What does this suggest?,

Ans. When the narrator was injured in a motor car accident, she had to spend some days in a hospital. Though Kaju was Gillu’s favourite food, he would not eat Kaju offered to him by others.
His behaviour shows that he was so deeply attached to the narrator that he felt sad during her absence.


Q. 17. In what condition did the narrator find Gillu? What did she do with it?

Ans. The narrator found Gillu, tiny baby squirrel, in a miserable condition. He had been wounded by crows. She carried him to his room and wiped the blood from his wounds with cotton wool. Then she applied Penicillin ointment to his wounds. After trying for several hours she managed to put one drop of water into his tiny mouth.


‘Q. 18. How did the narrator make the tiny baby squirrel hale and hearty?

Ans. Mahadevi Verma, found the wounded baby squirrel on her verandah, she nursed him carefully. She applied Penicillin ointment to his wounds. It was difficult to feed him. After several hours she succeded in pouring one drop of water in his mouth. On the third day he became much better.

4. What Is Wrong With Indian Films


Q. 1. Have average American films been a bad model? Give one

Ans. Yes, the average American films have been a bad model because their life does not match to our life.


Q. 2. Have you seen any film recently?

Ans. Yes, I have seen one Indian film recently. Indian film has its own story. It is traditional. It teaches us a moral lesson. It goads a man on the path of progrese.


Q. 3. Mention one thing/feature which the Indian cinema needs..

Ans. According to Satyajit Ray, the Indian cinema needs a style, an idiom, which would be uniquely and recognisably Indian. It does not need the blind imitation of the American cinema.


Q.4. What does the cinema combine?

Ans. The cinema is a form of creative expression. It combines in various measures the functions of poetry, music, painting, drama, architecutre and other art forms. It also combines the logic of science.


Q.5. Which is the most potent and versatile art form?

Ans. There are various forms of art but the cinema is the most potent and versatile art form. The cinema is a potent art form because it has a large audience. It is a versatile art form because it has the qualities of several art forms.


Q.6. Do Indian film-makers possess the primary tools of film-making?

Ans. Yes, Indian film-makers possess the primary tools of film making. The complaint of the technicians about the lack of modern mechanical devices is not justified. The available tools should be used intelligently.


Q. 7. What does Satyajit Ray say about the lack of maturity, in Indian films?

Ans. Satyajit Ray says that the lack of maturity in Indian films can be attributed to several factors. The producers blame the masses for the bad quality of Indian films. The technicians blame the tools and the directors blame the existing conditions for the lack of maturity in Indian films.


Q.8.“Films are the mirrors of society.” Discuss.

Ans. The films mirrored the patriarchal system followed by the society. The late sixties and the 70s saw the emergence of parallel cinema along with films on teenage romance and those portraying the angry young man, the image of the youth of the time. So films are mirrors of society.


Q. 9. Where should the truly Indian film look for its material?

Ans. The truly Indian film should not imitate the American cinema. It should look for its material in the basic aspects of Indian life. It should depict habits. speech, dresses and manners of the common people of India. It must aim at a drastic simplification of style and content.


Q. 10. Write the name of any film which you like most with its salient features.
Or. Tell the name of any field do you like.

Ans. I am not a cinema fan but I seldom miss a good film. On Sunday last I went to see an old picture ‘Aashiqui’. The story was interesting and instructive. It gives woman their fair deal. The romances were clean, musical and bereft of any vulgarity. The film brought those audience back to the theatres, who had resigned themselves in front of the television.


Q.11. What is the most dominant influence on Indian films?

Ans. The most dominant influence on Indian films is the technique of film production in Hollywood. Every phase of the American cinema has been reflected in Indian films. Stories based on the successful films of Hollywood have been written for Indian films.


Q. 12. Give a short account of the educative value of the cinema.

Ans. In the present era cinema has the most potent art form. It should be looked upon as a form of creative expression. It commands the respect given to any other form of educative expression. It combines the function of poetry, music, painting, drama and architecture.


Q. 13. Should cinema be looked upon as a form of creative expression? Give reasons.

Ans. Today the cinema combines the functions of poetry, music, painting, drarna and architecture. It also displays the features of other forms of art. Like the other forms of art, it is a powerful tool for creative expression. The producers and directors try to present their visions of life through their films.


Q.14. What aspects of American films do our films imitiate ? Is it justified in our context?

Ans. we producers and directors of our films have been imitating the different aspects of Hollywood films for a long time. They imitate the stories and ideas of successful American films. They use the jazz music in the films which are based on Indian stories. It is not justified in our context.


Q. 15. Do you think Indian films have certain basic -weaknesses? Illustrate your answer, citing examples from the films you have seen.

Ans. A large number of films are produced in India every year but they have certain basic weaknesses. I watched a film ‘Ashiqui’
day. There are several causes of the lack of maturity of Indian films. They do not give a coherent dramatic pattern to a story. They depict melodrama. Their stories are often unrealistic,


Q.16. “What our cinema needs above everything else is a style, an idiom, a sort of iconography of cinema, which would be uniquely and recognisably Indian.” How far this applies to Indian cinema today? Discuss.

Ans. It completely applies that our films lack the practical touch of life. They show films to be artificial. We have all Equipments and tools but we don’t use them properly. We need to broaden our views and make cinemas on global issues.

5. Acceptance Speech


Q. 1. Why had Alexander Aris accepted the Nobel Peace Prize on behalf of his mother ?

Ans. Alexander Aris had accepted the Nobel Peace Prize on behalf of his mother, Aung San Suu Kyi, because she was imprisoned in her country for pro-democracy agitation.


Q. 2. Why has the international community applauded the Nobel Peace Prize Committee ?

Ans. The international community has applauded the Nobel Peace Prize Committee for the choice of the committee for the Prize. The U.N.O. passed a historic resolution for her early release from detention.


Q. 3. Who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1951 ? When was the ‘Acceptance Speech’ delivered?

Ans. Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1951, The “Acceptance Speech’ was delivered in Oslo on December 10, 1951 on the occasion of the award of the Nobel Pease Prize.


Q.4. The Nobel Peace Prize belongs not only to Aung San Suu Kyi but to all the men, women and children of Burma. Why does Aris say so ?

Ans. Alexander Aris says that the Nobel Peace Prize belongs not only to his mother, but to all the men, women and children of Burma because all the people of Burma have been sacrificing their freedom and their lives in pursuit of a democratic Burma.


Q.5. What is more precious than diamond or silver or gold ?

Ans. The beauty of genuine brotherhood and peace is more precious than diamond or silver or gold, Diamond, silver and gold are precious metals but they cannot make the world a happier place to live in. Genuine brotherhood and peace are more necessary than these material things for the survival of the human race.


Q. 6. Who were incarcerated in the struggle for peace, freedom and democracy ?

Ans. Aung San Suu Kyi and many senior leaders of Burma were incarcerated in the struggle for peace, freedom and democracy. They had sacrificed their well-being and freedom for a democratic Burma.


Q. 7. “And no one must underestimate that plight ?’ which plight Aris refers to? Explain.

Ans. In the piece ‘Acceptance Speech’, Alexander Aris is referring to the plight of the people of Burma. Aris says that the personal sacrifice of his mother symbolises the plight of all the people of Burma.


Q. 8. Peace, freedom and democracy are essential for human being. Do you agree? Give your own opinion?

Ans. Peace, freedom and democracy are essential for human beings. The citizens of a country cannot live properly unless there is internal and external peace. They cannot make progress if they do not enjoy freedom. They need a democratic way of life for the pursuit of their aims and dreams.


Q.9. “The beauty of genuine brotherhood and peace being more precious than diamond or silver or gold.” Why does Aris claim so? Do you agree with him ?

Ans. In the ‘Acceptance Speech’, Alexander Aris refers to Martin Luther King Jr. He says that Martin Luther King Jr. was right that the beauty of genuine brotherhood and peace is more precious than diamond or silver or gold. Diamond, silver and gold are costly but they cannot bring about happiness in the world. I . agree with Aris.


Q. 10. Why does Aris say that the Nobel Prize for Peace belongs to all the people of Burma ?

Ans. Aris says that the Nobel Prize for Peace belongs not only to his mother but to all the people of Burma. He says so because all the men, women and children of Burma had been sacrificing their well-being, freedom and lives for a democractic Burma.

6. Once Upon A Time


Q 1. How was the old woman ?

Ans. The old woman was blind but wise.


Q2. Is this folk lore prevalent in one culture or many ?

Ans. This folk lore is prevalent in many cultures.


Q3. Who is the father of that old woman?

Ans. The father of the old woman is a slave, black American.


Q 4. Where does the old woman live?

Ans. The old woman lives alone in a small house outside of town.


Q5. What does the old woman know about those people?

Ans. The old woman knows that they have come to prove her a fraud.


Q.6. For what are the young visitors reprimanded ?

Ans. For parading their power and her helplessness, the young visitors are reprimanded.


Q7. What is the better, Town life or Country life ?

Ans. It is my view that country life is the home of pleasure. There we do not get any anxiety. We do not face any limitations, Nearness to nature can give us healthy, wealthy and all pleasures.


Q 8. How was the old woman ? Write in short about the wisdom of the old woman.
Or, How is her reputation for wisdom ?

Ans. The old woman was blind but wise. The woman was reputed for wisdom without peer and without question. She was both the low and its transgression among her people.


Q9. What is her position in the neighbourhood ?

Ans. She is highly respected in the neighbourhood. Among her people, she is regarded as a rural prophet. She is both the law and its transgression. Nobody questions her wisdom and predictions.


Q 10. Why did some young people visit her ?

Ans. One day some young people visit her because they want to prove that she is a fraud who cheats people. They believe that she does not really have the power of seeing in the mind the events of the future.


Q11. What does the old woman know about the young people who visit her ?

Ans. The old woman cannot see her visitors because she is blind. She does not know their colour, gender or homeland. She does not know what is in their hands. She only knows that they want to mock her.


Q12. Who is the old woman in ‘Once Upon a Time”? Where does she live? How is her reputation for wisdom ?

Ans. In the speech ‘Once Upon a Time’, the old woman is the daughter of a black American. She is blind but wise. She lives alone in a small house outside of town. Her reputation for wisdom is unique and unquestioned.


Q 13. Why are young visitors reprimanded by the old woman ?

Ans. The young visitors are reprimanded by the old woman because they misuse their power to ridicule her. They are told that they are responsible not only of mockery but also for the sacrifice of the innocent bird to achieve their aim.


Q 14. What does ‘bird’ and woman’ signify to the speaker in ‘Once Upon a Time ?

Ans.’ In the speech ‘Once Upon a Time’, ‘bird’ and ‘woman’ are used as symbols by the speaker, Toni Morrison. The bird’ in the hand of one of the young visitors signifies ‘language’. The ‘woman’, who is famous for her wisdom, signifies a ‘practised writer’.


Q 15. Enumerate the traits of the old woman.

Ans. The old woman was blind but wise. She was the daughter of a black American. She lived alone in a small house outside of town. She was famous for her wisdom. Among her people she was
highly respected as a rural prophet. When she was visited by some young people, she showed her wisdom.


Q16. What does the old woman know about the young people in ‘Once Upon a Time’?

Ans. The old woman cannot see her visitors because she is blind. She does not know their colour, gender or homeland, She does not know what is in their hands. She only knows that they want to mock her.


Q 17. Do you think that language is crucial to a writ Give any three reasons.

Ans. Language is crucial to a writer because it enables him to communicate. He can express his thoughts, ideas and feelings through language. The proper usage of language can enable him to bring about changes and revolution in the world. It can entertain and instruct the readers. It can enable them to see without  pictures.


Q 18. Quote a few lines from the text which highlights the plight of woman and depressed classes ?

Ans. In the piece ‘Once Upon a Time’, Tony Morrison has depicted the miserable condition of the women and poor people of America. The following lines highlight the plight of woman and the depressed classes:
“The woman is the daughter of slaves, black American, and lives alone in a small house outside of town.”
“I am old, female, black, blind.”

7. The Unity Of India Culture – Humanyun Kabir


Q. 1. What has been the policy of the Indians in all spheres of lifeh

Ans. “Live and let live” has been the policy of the Indians in all spheres of life.


Q. 2. What does the experience of European countries give us ?

Ans. The experience of European countries gives us cases of civilization without culture.


Q. 3. Where have old civilization and culture grown and changed ?

Ans. Old civilization and culture have grown and changed in India and China.


Q. 4. Who has delivered the speech “The Unity of Indian Culture’?

Ans. Humayun Kabir has delivered the speech ‘The Unity of Indian Culture’.


Q.5. What is preferable to fanatic devotion ?

Ans. Toleration is perhaps preferable to the fanatic devotion which leads to the devial and persecution of all other values but its own.


Q. 6. How were the Aryans regarded till recently ?

Ans. Till recently, the Aryans were regarded as the earliest invaders of India. It was believed that they came to a country which was savage and uncivilized.


Q.7. How did the pre-Aryans build up a new civilization ?

Ans. The pre-Aryans had come to India before the Aryans arrived. They had displaced the people who were liging here. They built up a new civilization which was remarkable for its extent and depth. Their civilization was better than that of the Aryans who came to India after them.


Q.8. The fast life of the western society is compelling the westerners to turn to India. Discuss.

Ans. The western have turned the speedy business of life. Western world is too fast paced life whereas life in India is still full of leisure and peace. In western country the hectic behaviour of people has perplexed them and made them restless, On the other hand immaterial life of India gives peace and solace to the people. So the westerners are compelled to turn to India.


Q.9. Which spirit underlies the changes of Indian history ?

Ans. The spirit of unity underlies the changes of Indian history, There is diversity in the dresses, customs, beliefs and ways of life of the people of India. Indian culture is a blend of many elements but there is unity beneath this diversity.


Q. 10. How does Humayun Kabir define civilization ?

Ans. Humayun Kabir defines civilization as the organisation of society. It makes civil socieiy possible and creates suitable conditions for the development of culture. Therefore, there can be i no culture without civilization. There may be civilization which
has not yet developed its culture.


Q.11. How does Humayun Kabir define culture ?

Ans. Humayun Kabir defines culture as the flowering of civilization. It expresses itself through language and art, through philosophy and religion. It is reflected in social habits and customs, political institutions and economic organisations. They collectively constitute culture. There can be no culture without civilization.


Q.12. What does Humayun Kabir say about toleration ? Or, What has been the policy of the Indians in all spheres of Or, Explain the meaning of ‘live and let live’.

Ans. Humayun Kabir says that toleration is one of the main features of Indian culture. ‘Live and let live’ has been the policy of the Indians in all spheres of life. This principle means that the different ways of life should be allowed to survive.


Q.13. What, according to the author, is the most remarkable feature of Indian culture ? Or, What, in the opinion of Humayun Kabir, is the most remarkable feature of Indian culture ?

Ans. According to Humayun Kabir, the most remarkable feature of Indian culture is its spirit of unity. Many races and tribes came to India one after another. They had their own distinct cultures but they were soon absorbed in Indian culture.


Q. 14. How is Indian culture different from the cultures of other countries?

Ans. Indian culture is different from the cultures of other countries. It is remarkable for unity and continuity. It has a unique capacity of absorbing external influences. There is unity in diversity in Indian culture. The Indian society has capacity of readjustment and toleration. Unlike the cultures of other countries, Indian culture is as extensive as its civilisation itself. All classes are equally cultured in India. In European countries there is a culture gap between the poor and the rich.


Q.15. Define culture and civilization in the light of the story. The unity of Indian culture.

Ans. Culture : According to Humayun Kabir culture is always a complex of many strands of varying importance and vitality, Unity and universality must belong to culture.

Civilization : According to Humayun Kabir, civilization is the organisation of society which creates the condition of culture.


Q.16. What in your opinion are the characteristic featus of Indian culture ?

Ans. Indian culture is unique. It has some special features which are not found in other cultures of the world. In spite of veriety of forms there is a remarkable unity in Indian culture. This underlying unity is one of the most remarkable features of our culture. In volume and duration no culture of any other country except the Chinese culture can be compared with it.


Q.17. What is the capacity of readjustment exhibited in the Indian society? Is it the strength or the weakness of Indian society ?

Ans. History tells us that the Indian society has always exhibited the capacity of readjustment. Many races came to India in the past. They had their own civilisations and cultures. They appeace the scene as victors but they were soon absorbed in the vanquished people. The existing Indian society readjusted to changes.The capacity of readjustment exhibited in the Indian society is its strength.


Q. 18. Explain clearly the difference between culture and civilisation.

Ans. Civilisation of life makes civil society possible, culture, on the other hand, is the resultant of such organisation and expresses itself through language and art, through philosophy and religion, through social habits and customs and through political institutions and economic organisations.


Q. 19. Discuss the main ideas contained in “The Unity of Indian Culture.Or Summarize the ideas of the piece “The Unity of Indian Culture. Or. What does Humayun Kabir say about Indian culture ?

Ans. Humayun Kabir says that Indian culture is a blend of several racial and cultural elements. There is unity in diversity in India. Indian culture is a living culture. It has survived for a long time because the Indian society has unique capacity of readjustment. Indians are by nature tolerant. Toleration has enabled them to maintain unity in diversity.

8. Little Girls Wiser Than Man


Q. 1. Why did the old woman say to the crowd “Are you not ashamed of yourselves” ?

Ans. She said so because they were fighting for the girls but the girls were playing with each other.


Q. 2. Why did Akoulya shout at Malasha ?

Ans. Akoulya shouted at Malasha because the latter splashed dirty water on to her frock. She was angry when she saw stains on her new frock.


Q3. Why did Akoulya try to check Malasha ? What advice did Akoulya offer ?

Ans. Akoulya tried to cheak Malasha because she was going to step into the puddle with her shoes. She warned her that her mother would scold her. She advised her to take off her shoes and stocking before stepping into the puddle.


Q.4. Why did Akoulya’s mother seize Malasha ?

Ans. When Akoulya’s mother saw that her daughter’s frock was stained, she asked her why she had made it dirty. Akoulya told her that Malasha had made so. Then Akoulya’s mother seized Malasha and struck her on the back of her neck.


Q. 5. Where do two little girls meet? Are they of the same age ?

Ans. Two little girls meet in a lane between two homesteads. Dirty water running through the farm-yards had formed a large puddle at that place. They are not of the same age. One girl is very small, the other is little bigger.


Q6. What happened when Malasha’s mother came out after hearing her howl ?

Ans. Malasha’s mother came out after hearing her howl. She asked Akoulya’s mother angrily why she was beating her daughter. She began scolding her neighbour and they had an angry quarrel.


Q7. Did the old woman succeed in her effort ?

Ans. When a crowd collected in the street began quarrelling and shouting, Akoulya’s grandmother stepped in among them and tried to calm them but she did not succeed in her effort.


Q.8. What did the two girls do when men started Mighting ?

Ans. When men started lighting, the two girls made a channel through which the water of the puddle could run out into the street, The water from the channel ran towards the place where the men were lighting, Watching the chip of wood Monting along their stream, they came nenr them.


Q.9. What did Akoulyn do while the women were abusing each other ?

Ans. When the women were abusing cach other, Akoulyn wiped the mud off her lock and went back to the puddle . She took a stone and began scraping away the earth in front of the puddle, She made a channel through which water could run out into the street.


Q10. Which festival is referred to in the story ‘Little Girls Wiser than Man”? Why was sledging over? Why was water running in streams down the village street ?

Ans. Easter is referred to in the story ‘Little Girls Wiser than Man’. Sledging was over because snow lying in the streets had melted. Water was running in streams down the village street because snow lying in the street had melted owing to warm weather.


Q 11. Why writer calls two little girls “Dear little souls”,Or. Why does the writer call the two little girls “Dear little souls”?

Ans. The writer calls them “Dear little souls” because they were really so good. They were angry at first and even started fighting but soon they forgot everything and again were rejoicing and playing.


Q 12. Why did they step into the puddle and what makes them fight ?

Ans. The two girls were young children and were rejoicing in the festival of easter. Seeing the puddle they thought of time fun and came near it to splash and enjoy. They stepped in it but Akoulya’s frock got stained due to Malasha splashed to, she started shouting and this made them fight against each other.


Q 13. Why were the two girls dressed in new clothes and showing their finery to each other?

Ans. The two girls were dressed in new clothes because they had gone to church on the occasion of Easter. They were very happy and excited. So, they were showing their finery to each other because they thought that new dresses were very fine.


Q 14. What did the old woman mean by “is it right to behave so ? On a day like this, too!”

Ans. People of two groups were fighting over the matter of quarrel between the two little girls on the day of Easter. So the old woman reminded them that it was not right to quarrel over a petty issue on Easter day. The day was meant for celebration and rejoicing but they were wasting it.


Q 15. Explain “Except ye turn, and become as little child ren, ye shall in no way enter into the kingdom of heaven”.

Ans. This sentence is spoken by Akoulya’s old grandmother in Leo Tolstoy’s story ‘Little Girls Wiser than Man’. When her neighbours were fighting over a trivial issue of children on Easter day. They do not listen to her. Aller a l’ew minutes, the children forgot all about their quarrel and played together. Then the old woman reminded her neighbours that they would not be blessed by God unless they became innocent like little children,

1. God Made The Country


Q.1. Where do you find health and virtue ?

Ans. We find health and virtue in villages.


Q. 2. Where do you find fields and groves ?

Ans. We find fields and groves in countryside.


Q.3. What is the source of light in villages in the evening ?

Ans. The Moon is the source of light in villages in the evening.


Q.4. Do you belong to a village? Which natural scenes and objects there attract you most ?

Ans. Yes, I belong to a village. The river and tall trees of my village attract me most.


Q.5. Do you belong to a town? What things cause annoyance to you there ?

Ans. Yes, I belong to a town. Crowd and pollution make us annoyed.


Q. 6. In which way, do modern devices harm us ?

Ans. No doubt, modern devices give us physical comfort, but they have side effects. They create many problems that are harmful to us.


Q.7. What is the better, Town life or Country life ?

Ans. It is my view that country life is the home of pleasure. There we do not get any anxiety. We do not face any limitations. Nearness to nature can give us health, wealth and all pleasures.


Q.8. What are making our life bitter ?

Ans. Modern developments, on which we have begun to depend, at the place of nature, are making our life bitter. We have lost our peace and have become restless.


Q.9. What can make our life sweet ?

Ans. Good health and virtue can make our life sweet. If these two things we have, can enjoy the pleasures of life in a village.


Q. 10. Is village life better than city life ?

Ans. Village life is better than city life because groves make our environment pollution free. Animals and birds life in their natural habitat. At day break we are able to hear birds song. But on the other hand these things are not found in city.


Q.11. Why is life bitter ? Or, Why is life bitter ? Answer on the basis of the poem “God made the country, in brief way.

Ans. Life is a valuable gift of Almighty. God has provided us all gifts of our needs. With the evolution of towns and cities, problems have been increasing. We have no place to live comfortably. Even air, which is God’s gift, has been polluted. Water has lost its lusture and taste. Birds and plants, and trees are decreasing. It means we are losing our existence. In this way our life is bitter.


Q.12. Why does the poet believe that God made the country ?

Ans. The poet believes that God made the country with natural beauty. Men used to live in real environment where life is peaceful. Birds would chirp and trees welcome to all creatures for giving their shelter, God wished to make our life purposeful but we have upset the balance.


Q.13. Why does the poet believe that man made the town ?

Ans. The poet believes that God made this world comfortable but man has changed the world. It is the centre of unnatural conditions. Modern devices have been made by man. These devices are breaking the harmony of nature. He is making the whole world polluted. He is not able to think what will happen if it is not stopped.


Q.14. What can make our life sweet ?

Ans. God has given us a number of gifts. If we use the God’s gifts in the same way as he has provided us, our life must be sweet. We should live in the lap of nature where sweet songs of the nightingale and other birds would give us comfort. Trees must be planted at a large scale with sacred vow. We will have to change ourselves as before. Then our life must be sweet.


Q. 15. What function do groves perform in a village ?

Ans. Groves make our environment pollution-free. We can breathe pure oxygen. They give us a good sight of our eyes that makes us happy and worthwhile. In groves, we can be able to see different types of animals in their natural habitats. At day-break we are able to hear birds’ song. Rain is also cause by wood.


Q. 16. What are the birds scared of ? Explain.

Ans. Here town means the centre of modernisation where there is no tree. No habitat of bird is found there. Birds sing only where they live in natural environment. They have foresight to see disaster. They are threatening us to be aware of the calamity lest all things will be destroyed. So they are scared too.


Q. 17. Give the central idea of the poem God Made The Country.

Ans. “God made the country’ gives an idea of natural habitat for all living organisms. Being created in a natural way, villages possess a perfection that towns can never have. Addressing to the inhabitants, the poet focuses on the virtues of the rural life and exhorts them to escape from artificial luxury and comfort to the simple, but enduring pleasures of a village.

2. Ode On Solitude -Alexander Pope


Q.1. What make your life happy – money or contentment or both ? Discuss.

Ans. A little money and full satisfaction make our life happy.


Q. 2. Who is a happy man ?

Ans. A man whose desire is in a limit is a happy man.


Q.3. How many of you want to be happy? What constitutes happiness ?

Ans. Every of us wants to be happy. Satisfaction alone constitutes happiness.


Q. 4. How inay a man be happy ?

Ans. If a man controls over his desires and gets satisfaction what he has may be happy.


Q.5. Who is a blessed inan ?

Ans. The man whose days pass away without any worriness, is a blessed man.


Q.6. How does a happy man spend bis time?

Ans. A happy man spends his time to sleep soundly, study meditatively and entertain sweetly.


Q.7. What are the features of a happy life?

Ans. Contentment without any care and anxiety are the features of a happy life.


Q.8. What is an ode ?

Ans. The term ‘ode’ is usually employed for a long poem. Serious in subject, exalted in style and elaborate in its stanzaic structure. Example- ‘Ode On Solitude’.


Q. 9. Have you ever visited a remote village adorned with natural beauty and a capital town full of sky-scrappers ? Which one’would you like and why ?

Ans. Yes, I would like a remote village adorned with natural beauty which can make our life happy and natural.


Q.10. What is the secret of a happy life ?

Ans. It is a well known fact that ‘Wants’ are unlimited. No man can get all what he desires. It means “Wants’ can’t be ended, so we will have to control over our desires. Contentment gives us peace and happy life.


Q.11. The poet thinks that those who are contented with what they have are happy men. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Ans. Yes, I agree with the above statement. We know that “Desire’ has no end. If a man gets his one desire satisfied, another must arise in his mind. It is a vicious circle that goes and goes and never ends. Therefore it is better to be satisfied what we have or what we can earn with our hard work.


Q.12. Is the title of the poem is justified? Can you suggest any other title? Give reasons for your choice.

Ans. The title of the poem is justified. In this poem, the poet has presented a peaceful life which is possible only when a man feels himself alone. He has no desire, no greed, Then only the life may be peaceful. Yes, I can suggest an apt title ‘Quiet Life’. When the life is quiet, we will get all pleasures what a man desires.


Q. 13. Why does the poet want to live and die stealthily from the world? How many of you would like to do so? And Why ? Or, How does Alexander Pope want to live alone ?

Ans. The poet thinks that life has now become restless due to more population and desire of getting more and more. If a man controls his greed and wants, he must get a happy life. That’s why the poet wants to live unseen and unknown and die unlamented. Most of us don’t want so because we always try to get fame.


Q.14. What does the speaker mean by Together mixed sweet recreation. Can these things be mixed? Have you ever tried to do so ?

Ans. The speaker wants to say that work is essential for getting our goal. But more work makes a man tired. Recreation gives us fresh energy which once more makes us ready to work heartly. If both are mixed in a balanced way, the life of a man would be happy. So, I always do so; not only trying to do so.

3. Polythene Bag


Q. 1. Does a Polythene bag get dissolved ?

Ans. No, it never gets dissolved.


Q. 2. Whose hurt melt down like Polythene bag ?

Ans. Man’s hurt melts down like polythene bag.


Q.3. Where the Polythene bag is buried ?

Ans. The polythene bag is buried within the soil.


Q.4. What comes back again and again ?

Ans. A pain comes again and again.


Q. 5. When does a Polythene bag make a noise ?

Ans. When we touch it a polythene makes a noise.


Q. 6. How do the germs of disease grow ?

Ans. The germs of disease grow when polythene bag is left in the garbage bag for a long time.


Q.7. What does the word Hurl” stand for ?

Ans. ‘Hurt’ stands for harm. Here polythene bag is a hurt. substance that always gives us pain.


Q.8. What causes pain ?

Ans. As the polythene bag never gets dissolve, it gives us a dangerous consequence. Such a thing is painful.


Q.9. How does it affect environment ?

Ans. It pollutes environment when gives pungent smell and produces germs of disease.


Q.10. “The Polythene bag remains within”, explain.

Ans. The poet has given a real existence of a polythene bag. Due to its permanent nature, it harms us in many ways. When it is buried within the ground, its existence is not affected.


Q.11. Why does the poet compare hurt with a Polythene bag,? Give any two reasons.

Ans. According to the poet, a polythene bag means hurt or pain. Due to its nature it ever gives us harm. And any harm hurts human beings. When it is thrown, it pollutes environment and when burnt, it exudes a poisonous smell.


Q.12. Have you ever been hurt ? Write your feeling in your own words.

Ans. Yes, I have been hurt many times. I remember. When I was in Xth, I laboured hard and so expected for better result. But I got only 80 percent marks that hurt me a lot. My parents did say nothing but some people of my neighbours commented upon me. When I hear their sharp words, I get hurt.


Q.13. How does a Polythene bag pollute our environment ?

Ans. A polythene bag has one use but many harmful effects. It causes air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution. It gives a chance to grow germs of disease. Each and every p such a mundane thing.

4. Thinner Than A Crescent


Q.1. To whon does the friend make a report ?

Ans. Her friend makes a report to Lord Krishna.


Q.2. Way is Radha crying ?

Ans. Due to separation from Lord Krishna Radha is crying.


Q.3. What two feelings of Radha have been referred to by her friend ?

Ans. (a) She is hurt. (b) She is confused.


Q.4. What do Radha’s friends believe in ?

Ans. Radha’s friends believe that joy of Radha máy return again.


Q.5. Where does Radha’s friend go and why ?

Ans. Radha’s friend goes to Lord Krishna to report the pathetic condition of Radha.


Q.6. Why did Radha’s friend run to Lord Krishna ?

Ans. Radha’s friend ran to Lord Krishna to report the pathetic condition of Radha.


Q.7. Why is Radha confused ?

Ans. Radha often meets to Lord Krishna. But suddenly the Lord has had no occasion to meet Radha for some time. Over this, she is unable to understand the reason that caused her confusion.


Q.8. Describe Radha’s conditions, as reported by her friend.

Ans. Radha’s condition is very bad. She is hurt and confused what Krishna did. She talks her friends of possibilities of Lord Krishna who has not met for some time. She grows thinner everyday and she has grown thinner than the crescent in the sky.


Q.9. Why is Radha’s friend so worried ?

Ans. Radha is very upset. She is hurt, too. Her friends are so worried about her bad conditions. They think over the possibilities. Radha is sitting on the bank of a river of tears and highly confused. That condition is unbearable for them. That’s why they are worried.


Q.10. “Radha each day/grows thinner/thinner than the crescent in the sky”, comment on the use of Imagery .

Ans. The poet has presented a vivid picture of Radha. Each day she is growing thinner, thinner than the crescent. This picture produces an impressive effect on readers’ mind. It seems all incidents are happening now, although it is the matter of past.


Q.11. What is the main theme of the poem ?

Ans. In this poem, the poet has presented different moods of love relationship between Lord Krishna and Radha such as early attraction, their meeting, their quarrels, and their separation. This poem is in the form of a report from a friend of Radha to Lord Krishna. The poet wants to present many moods of a man’s life.

5. The Empty Heart


Q.1. What is your opinion about a greedy man ?

Ans. A greedy man loses his existence quickly.


Q.2. When did the man want one pot of gold?

Ans. When he prayed a lot, he demanded a pot of gold.


Q.3. Why was he given seven pots ?

Ans. The tree granted his promotion heartly .


Q.4. When was the gift given by the tree ?

Ans. When he went to the tree day to night and prayed a lot.


Q.5. Why was the man not content, although he was rich ?

Ans. He was greedy, so he was not content.


Q.6. How much work did he do for getting gold ?

Ans. He used to get up before cock-crow and laboured hard till midnight.


Q.7. Why was the tree called unkind ?

Ans. Because the tree gave him a half-filled extra pitcher to make him greedy.


Q.8. Explain the nature of the man.

Ans. The man was rich but dissatisfied. Although he was given more than he desired, yet he was not content and this greed led to death.


Q.9. What does “Silver pitcher” symbolize in the poem ?

Ans. Silver pitcher’ symbolizes enough wealth. It means if a person gets enough gold or money or property, he has silver pitcher.


Q.10. Comment on the title of the poem. Is the title justified ?

Ans. The title is justified as the whole poem describes about the greed of a man. The man was rich enough. After all he prayed the ‘Wish-yeilding Tree’ to give him a pot of gold. He was given eight pots at the place of one, after all he was not satisfied.


Q.11. What was the reason of the greedy man’s death ?

Ans. The man was very rich but he had no satisfaction. Although his demand was granted sevenfold, yet his desire shaped a demon. He was also given a half-full pot. He worked day and night to fill an empty pot and so he died helplessly.


Q. 12. What does the name “Kalpaka” evoke? What light does it throw on the character of the person?

Ans. ‘Kalpaka’ is a Tamil word means god, that has enough power to produce anything. A god should be generous and so it was. The man demanded only one pot of gold, and the tree gave him seven pots. Even an eight pot was given, though it was half filled. It explains the greed of the person.


Q. 13. Contentment is the style of life. Discuss in the light of the poem.

Ans. Contentment is the real wealth of human being. It is sure money is necessary, no doubt but how much money, cannot be limited. By our hard labour what we get is enough. We should have limited needs and desires.


Q. 14. Explain the following lines:
Nothing is wrong with a half-filled purse:
Tis the void in the heart that is the curse:

Ans. Desire is a restless bird that can’t be fulfilled even if the whole property of the world given to a single man. Each and every man needs some wealth; and it is enough to entertain our life in il good way; then why we need more ? So, it is said that our heart is empty, it is a curse.

6. Koel (The Black Cuckoo) –Puran Singh


Q.1. Who wrote the poem “Koel?

Ans. Puran Singh wrote the poem “Koel’.


Q. 2. What fires the Koel ?h

Ans. The sight of mango-blossoms fires the Koel.


Q. 3. What do thy” and “art” stand for ?

Ans. We write ‘your’ for ‘thy’ and ‘Are’ for ‘art’.


Q.4. Why is Koel restless ?

Ans. The Koel is restless in search of her beloved.


Q.5. “O little Bird!”, Why is ‘B’ in ‘Bird capital here ?

Ans. Because the poet personifies the bird.


Q.6. What charred the wings of koel?

Ans. The fire of love charred the wings of Koel.


Q.7. What does the flaming soul of the Koel ask ?

Ans. The flaming soul of the Koel wants to know where her beloved is.


Q. 8. What happens with the shades of mangoes ?

Ans. The shades of mangoes have been burnt.


Q.9. What makes thousand memories in heart ?

Ans. The high-pitched song of cuckoo makes thousand memories in poet’s heart.


Q. 10. Do you think that the Koel symbolises true love ? Or, “The koel is the symbol of a true love ? Explain it in brief.

Ans. Yes, the Koel is the symbol of true love. It kindles our heart. It pours a rain of sparks. It remains fresh. It never gets discharged. It has the power to catch the heart of others. Its love is natural. No one knows where it lives but when the spring season comes, it appears. It denotes that its love is true.


Q. 11. Why is a Koel praised? How do you feel when you hear its voice ?

Ans. A Koel is a bird of power and energy. Its voice is so melodious that can attract any person. Due to its sweet song we praise it. When we hear its voice, we forget all others things. We begin to dream the world where there is calm and peace only.


Q. 12. Why does the poet call the Koel- “a rain of spark”? Explain.

Ans. The poet calls the Koel a rain of spark. It means the Koel is an energetic bird that lives its life with happy and fertile moments. It’s flow never stops as rain. It comes to welcome that summer which gives us rain. The rain gives us life.


Q.13. Why is the Koel restless ? Is she able to win over her restlessness? If no, why ?

Ans. The Koel is restless in search of her beloved. The sight of mango blossoms fires her all the more. So, her soul also burns. Therefore, to get relief from restlessness she calls her beloved, with spark-shedding notes. She is hopeful of meeting her beloved very shortly.


Q. 14. In response to the speaker’s question.” What singed ny wings ?”
The Koel replies, ”The fire of love has charred my wings.” Vhat does the Koel’s answer suggest? Can love burn like fire? s this burning a positive thing or a negative one ? Explain.

Ans. The Koel’s answer suggests that love is itself a burning lame that brightens all. Here ‘burn’ means always charges with Dositive energy. The poet wants to say that the energy of Koel gives us extra energy to our aggrieved soul. It burns itself and evives us; then again we become fresh as the Koeles.

7. The Sleeping Porter


Q. 1. Who is challenging the mountain ?

Ans. The brave porter is challenging the mountain.


Q. 2. What type of cap is the ‘Porter wearing’?

Ans. He is wearing a dirty-black cap.


Q.3. What type of smell does the porter emit ?

Ans. The porter emits a sulphur-like sour smell.


Q.4. What is there on the cliff ?

Ans. There is a hut on the cliff of a steep rock.


Q.5. What is the mother searching ?

Ans. The mother is searching for nettles and vines.


Q.6. Who is the hero of the mountain ?

Ans. The porter is the hero of the mountain.


Q. 7. Who is reigning over the rich-kingdom of sleep ?

Ans. The porter is reigning over the rich-kingdom of sleep.


Q. 8. What is the problem of his son ?

Ans. He is shivering with cold and suffering from hunger.


Q.9. How much load does the porter have on his back ?

Ans. A twenty-five kilo load the porter have on his back.


Q.10. What distance does the porter cover in the snows of winter ?

Ans. The porter covers a six-mile distance in the snows of winter.


Q. 11. What is meant by lid of night ?

Ans. ‘Lid of night’ means the stars are the blankets which cover the porter in his protection.


Q. 12. Which type of body does the porter possess ?

Ans. He emits a sulphur-like sour smell but his body is very strong. He is naked but remains healthy and strong.


Q. 13. Why is the Porter out of breath ?

Ans. The porter has to climb the mountain with a heavy load on his back. He also pants and sweats because he discharges a tiring work. This is why the porter is out of breath.


Q.14. A mother is searching for nettles and vines who is she? Why is she searching such things?

Ans. She is porter’s wife. She is searching for nettles (stinging plant) and vines (the creeper which bears grap facing cold and hunger.


Q.15. How Sleeping Porter is the hero of the mountain ?

Ans. A person who is determined for his goal, he must get it with hard labour. In such a situation difficulties often hurdles in the way. The porter labours hard. He never get tired and at last raches up the mountain, this, proves to be the hero of the mountain.


Q. 16. What is the main theme of the poem The Sleeping Porter ?

Ans. The poem presents tribulations and trials by a poor por ter. He is very stout’ and continues in his work. His hard labour doesn’t provide his family a livelihood. He has a strong body but dull mind. The poet wants to say that a dull mind can be fruitful. everyone must have a good mind, then hard labour gives all things what are needed.


Q.17. The poet has focused on trials and tribulations of the porter. Elucidate.

Ans. In the poem ‘The Sleeping Porter the poet has focused the trouble and trial of the porter. He is poor enough. He has to carry loads on his back to the mountain. There are snows all around but he doesn’t care and faces such troubles bare body. Although he labours toil and moil, yet he is unable to fulfil needs of his family.


Q.18. Determination, hard work and continuity win the race. Do you agree? Write your opinions with reference to the poem “The Sleeping Porter ?

Ans. Yes, I agree. A person who is determined for his goal, he must gets it. For the goal he has to labour hard. In such a situation difficulties often hurdles in the way. In the same way the porter labours hard. He never tired and at last reach his destination.

8. Martha -Walter Dela Mare


Q.1. What is the colour of Martha’s eyes ?

Ans. The colour of Martha’s eyes is clear grey.


Q.2. Who are staring at ease ?

Ans. Children are staring at ease.


Q.3. How half of the stories were said ?

Ans. Half of the stories were said by her grave expression.


Q.4. How do they sit to listen Martha’s story ?

Ans. They sit on their elbows to listen Martha’s story.


Q.5. What does Martha do in the Hazel glen ?

Ans. Martha tells the children stories in the Hazel glen.


Q.6. Describe Martha’s physical features.

Ans. Martha is an old woman. Her eyes are clear grey, nice and calm. During telling her stories, she would sit with her two slim hands clasped round her bended knees. Her chin is narrow and her hand is small and lovely. Her expression presents a mysterious scene in the valley.


Q. 7. How does the poem Martha end ?

Ans. The poem ends with a grand success. All fordone and forgot. Their hearts stood still in a calm place and in the same way clouds would stand in the height of the sky. It is felt that a period of the age has slide away. All the children felt comfortable and relaxed.


Q. 8. Is this poem Martha like a dream ? How can you say that ?

Ans. Yes, I find this poem like a dream. When she begins to tell her stories, she presents a different scene as before. Children get themselves unable to think any other things, except her stories. Her story telling style creates a mystic scene as if all things were happening in a dream.


Q.9. Do you think that Martha and the children are enjoyed the stories ?

Ans. Yes, both Martha and the children enjoyed the stories well. As Martha is the performer of the story, she must enjoy it. The children feel peace and calm when hears the story. It means the children are taking high enjoyment that’s why they are happy.


Q. 10. Martha begins with happy and tranquil note and ends with sadness. Does she do so ? Explain.

Ans. The poem begins with happy and tranquil note. Martha starts her story with a great beauty. Her facial expressing presents a fantasy. The children are attract towards her and her stories. But as the story develops, her face presents a dreadful scene. Her beauty loses its existence and the sun sets. All forget everything and were drown in dreamy world.


Q. 11. Explain the mood of the poet when he says “Our hearts stood still in the hush of an age gone by”.

Ans. The poet is now in sad mood. As Martha begins her story, the poet feels happy, but as it goes and goes on, her appearance creates a mysterious scene. Beholding this scene the mood of ih poet suddenly changes into sadness. He feels that one age has passed away.


Q. 12. Describe poet’s feeling when he started the poem.

Ans. The poet started the poems with pleasant feeling. He chose a lady character who was master as a story-teller. The lady was Martha. Martha had good-looking face and slim hands. Sho was an orator which made the poet happy to think that his poem would get a good style.


Q.13. How did Martha tell her story ?

Ans. Martha narrated a story in front of children in a magical way. She would sit with her slim and beautiful hands clasped round her bended knees. Her narrow chin and nice head’ seemed to all half of the story. Her style was very attractive. She cast a spel the children’s minds so that they lost sight to the real world and face and get lost in the world being described by Martha.

1. January Night – Prem Chand


Q.1. How many characters are there in the story ‘January Night’? List them.

Ans. There are three characters in the story ‘January Night’. They are Halku, Munni, Jamindar and Jabra.


Q. 2. Who was Halku ?

Ans. Halku was a tenant farmer.


Q.3. What was the present problem of Halku ?

Ans. Halku was surrounded in a debt-trap. He had saved some money for him to buy a blanket but the landlord forced his to pay the money for rent.


Q.4. Why did Halku need a blanket?

Ans. Halku was a poor tenant farmer. He had to sleep in the fields at night. He needed a blanket immediately because he had to face intense cold in the fields at night.


Q.5. How were Halku’s crops destroyed ?

Ans. Halku went there with his dog Jabra to guard the yield but they proved to be a failure as the wild animals ruined the yield.


Q. 6. What were the main problems before Halku and his wife Munni ?

Ans. The main problems before Halku and Munni were to guard their crops in the severe cold of January without a rug and to pay the dues of the landlord.


Q. 7. How did Halku take his failure ?

Ans. Halku took this very lightly. He said that now, at least, I won’t have to go out in the night.


Q.8. What kind of a woman was Munni ?

Ans. Munni was the wife of Halku. As a typical housewife, she was very concerned about her incomes and husband. However, she was in great troubles due to poverty.


Q.9. Who was Munni? Why did Munni suggested Halku to give up tenant farming ? Or,Sketch the character of Munni.

Ans. Munni was the wife of Halku, a poor tenant farmer. Munni advised Halku to give up farming and to work as a hired labour. By doing so he at least got enough food to eat from it. He should not have to pay land rent. In farming whatever he earned he threw back into it and got insulted in the bargain.


Q.10. What happened to their yield ?

Ans. Halkı went there with his dog Jabra to guard the yield i they proved to be a failure as the wild animals ruined the yield.


Q.11. Why didn’t they go to save the yield ?

Ans. They were under the state of extreme cold and even their body didn’t support them to work.


Q. 12. Give the main idea of the story ?Or, Give the main idea of the story January Night;

Ans. The story touches different aspects of life. There are a number of things which can be learnt from the story, like the understanding power of animals, the concerns of a housewife. Mostly, it deals with the attitude and approach of life. Halku, the main character, lies in a very poor state and is surrounded with problems all around him always.


Q. 13. Sketch the character of Halku.

Ans. Halku was a poor tenant farmer. He worked hard but he could not get enough food. Whatever he earned was spent in paying up the arrears. So, he was always in debt. He was self-respected person and so he could not buy a blanket and paid the money to the landlord to save his dignity. Halku was very fond of his pet dog, Jabra who was his constant companion.


Q. 14. How many characters are there in the story ‘January Night’? Whom dą you like most? Give reasons for your choice ?

Ans. There are mainly three characters Halku, his wife Munni and their Dog Jabra. Among them Halku is the most impressive character according to me. He was in great trouble to have money but still he faced it with great courage and bold attitude.


Q. 15. Who was Halku? How were his crops destroyed ?

Ans. Halku was a poor tenant farmer. He had to sleep in his field without a blanket in the cold nights of January. One night he found the cold unbearable. So, he could not drive away the wild animals which distroyed his crops.


Q. 16. Who was Jabra ?Or, Describe Jabra.

Ans. In the story January Night, Jabra is a dog who feels all the problems of Halku. He was with Halku in January Night at Halku’s field. He always accompany Halku, and also guarded his field alone in the January night.


Q.17. Suppose you are Munni, the landlord comes to your house, asks you to pay the rent. What will you do then ?

Ans. If I would have been in Munni’s place I would have tried to request him to grant us some time to pay off his debt because if I would have paid him now then I would be in great trouble. I know it would have been tough for me like him but I would have done my best for my husband’s sake.


Q.18. Animals also passess the ability to understand human feeling. Elaborate this statement keeping in view the role of. Jabra in the story.

Ans. Animals also have a heart and a power to understand. As we have seen in this story, Jabra the dog was very intimate to his master, Halku. He was ready to lose all his comfort for the sake of I his master’s welfare. Even in the cold night of January he faced the cold and wild animals alone. This shows how deeply he understood i his master.


Q.19. Haiku didn’t go to the field even when he know that animals were devouring the crops. Had you been there what i would you have done ?

Ans. Halku didn’t go to the field even knowing that animals 1 were there. He was in a very helpless condition at that time. If I s would have been in his place I would have tried to go to the field. I But if the circumstances and my body would have forced me then í may be I also would have turned helpless.


Q.20. Who was Munni and why was she angry with Haiku ?

Ans. Munni was the wife of Halku. Her husband could not save enough money for food and clothes after paying rent to the 1 landlord. Munni was a practical and bold woman. She knew that it was very difficult for her husband to sleep in his field without a blanket in cold winter nights. So, when Halku was determined to give the saved money to the landlord and to live without blanket, he became angree.


Q.21. Focus the role of Jabra in the story January Night. Or, Ellaborate the role of Jabra in the story’ January Night.

Ans. In the story ‘January Night’, Jabra is a dog who feels all the problems of Halku. He was with Halku in January Night at Halku’s field. When Halku could not bear the cold he picked Jabra up and put his hand in his lap. Jabra could not oppose. When Jabra listened the noise of animals he woke up and ran towards the field barking.

2. Allergy -Dr. Rana S.P. Singh


Q. 1. What is allergy  ?

Ans. Allergy is a malfunction of the human immune system causing a violent reaction against normally harmless substances in our natural environment.


Q. 2. What are the general symptoms of allergy ?

Ans. The general symptoms of allergy are itching, fever, feeling of drowsiners, eczema, asthma, etc.


Q.3. In this story who suffers from allergy ?

Ans. In this story Prem Shankar suffers from allergy. One day when he got up he experienced an itching sensation of pain all over his body.


Q.4. What are allergens ?

Ans. Allergens are substances which can produce allergy. ‘Pollens’ mold spores, dust, smoke, dust mites, animal hair, cockroaches are allergens.


Q.5. When and how did we understand about allergy ?

Ans. Our basic understanding of allergy has evolved from the discovery in 1967 of a previously unknown antibody, Immunoglobulin E or (IgE), by scientists in Uppsala and Baltimore.


Q. 6. How can asthma be treated ?

Ans. For effective asthama medication, one need to look beyond the obvious symptoms antihistamines, for example, a may provide temporary relief by masking the symptoms but have virtually no effect on the underlying inflamation. By using a diagnostic test developed by Padia ECP can be detected in body fluide then it can be cured.


Q.7. Which type of communion allergic disease are generally, found in children of 0-6 years of age ?

Ans. In children of 0-6 years of age generally it is found that they are very uncomfortable with strangers, sometimes with strange surroundings, they develop dislikes for certain food items, they weap a lot in certain situations, sometimes some inflamatory wounds and itching is also caused.


Q.8. What is allergy march ? Explain.

Ans. Allergies which start as eczema or gastrointestinal problems, many evolve into asthma, frequently involving respiratory symptoms such as hyperreactivity and obstruction of the airways. This direct path of development is widely referred to as “the allergy march”.


Q. 9. What are the symptoms that tell you that you are suffering from any allergic disease? What precautions would you take to overcome it ? Or, What is allergy? How can allergic diseases be treated ?

Ans. The symptoms which indicate that a person is suffering from a disease are hay fever, eczema, asthma, etc. These symptoms are known as allergic. Allergic symptoms develop after exposure to an allergen for some time.Allergic diseases can be treated by avoidance of the allergen, medication to relieve symptoms and allergy shots. A person suffer ing from an allergic disease must avoid the allergen which causes it.


Q.10. Cari allergic reactions be life-threatening ? Namen few of such instances of allergy.

Ans. Yes, sometimes allergic reactions can be life-threatening. Once I saw a man who had some allergy from the cactus plants. By mistake he came at a place where there were many cactus plants. He started feeling very uncomfortable. His body started itching and suddenly his body temperature also increased. Not only this but also hit started having breathing problems. It seemed that he won’t survive but he was soon taken to hospital where he survived due to the great efforts of the doctors.


Q.11. Some particular diseases which are caused due changing of weather. Also mention its remidial measures.

Ans. Generally people suffer from heavy fever due to certain flowers or plants. It happens with the changing seasons.
Its remedies are as follows;

  • Avoid going near such flowers or plants,
  • Avoid keeping them in house.
  • Wear mask if coming near them.
  • Use medicines for calming the symptoms.

Q.12. Suggest a few possible ways to avoid allergy. Or, How can avoid allergy.

Ans. Suggestions to aovid allergy-

  • Wear, a pollen mask when moving the grass or house cleaning,
  • Stay indoors in the morning (when the pollen count is at its highest) and on windy days.
  • Read and understand food labels (for people with food allergy).
  • Keep windows and doors closed during heavy pollina tion seasons.
  • Rid the home of indoor plants and other sources of mildew.
  • Don’t allow danger-producing animals in the house.
  • Change feather pillows, woolen blankets and clothing of cotton or synthetic materials.
  • Wash sheets, mattress pad and blankets weekly in hot water (at least 130° F).

3. The Bet -Anton Chekov


Q. 1. Why did the banker weep to read the notes of the lawyer ?

Ans. The banker wept to read the notes of the lawyer because he was filled with guilt. He felt contempt for herself.


Q.2. Who were the persons envolved in the bet ?

Ans. The banker, a rich and young person, and the lawyer, a young man, were the persons involved in the bet.


Q.3. Why was the banker afraid of honouring the bet ?

Ans. The lawyer was confined for long period of fifteen years. The bankers was very rich but his economic condition had become weak by the fourteenth-fifteenth year of lawyers confinement. So, he was being afraid of honouring the bet.


Q. 4. Is capital pusnishment justified ?

Ans. No, capital punishment is not justified. If someone is wrong and commits a crime there are so many ways to condemn and punish him. But life of anyone is very precious. If we cannot give it, we should not take it.


Q.5. How did the lawyer violate the agreement with the banker ?

Ans. The lawyer violated the agreement with the banker by escaping from his cell five minutes before the stipulated term. He went to the gate and disappeared. He did not claim two million roubles from the lawyer because he hated material things.


Q. 6. What was the banker’s view on capital punishment and life imprisonement ?

Ans. The banker held a different view from others, who at tended the party while discovering capital punishment was more moral and more humane than life imprisonment. Because execution kills instantly, life imprisonment kills by degree.


Q.7. What were the terms and conditions of the bet ? Do you think them proper ?

Ans. The terms and conditions were the lawyer had to remain confined in a cell for fifteen years. During his confinement the banker had to supply the necessary requisites to the lawyer, for example, food, wine, books and the means of entertainment. If the lawyer successfully remained within the confinement the banker had to pay two millions at stake.
I do not think them as proper, Because vain longings and rigidity of opinions often give bad results. Ultimately the involved parties get nothing but remorse. Pleasure of gain and pleasure of loss both are futile if real wisdom is perceived.


Q. 8. What did the banker do to know that the lawyer had escaped ? Why did he weep to read the notes of the lawyer ?

Ans. The banker instantly went with his servants to the wing and established the escape of his prisoner. To avoid unnecessary Remours he took the paper from the table and on his return locked it in his sate. He wept to see the innocence and greatness of the lawyer.


Q.9. Why was the banker afraid of honouring the bet ? Or, Why was the banker afraid of the Lawyer ?

Ans. The banker had a lot of money when he offered to pay the stake. In course of time, his financial condition had worsened. The lawyer was about to complete fifteen years of his confinement. He thought that he would be ruined for ever and the lawyer would enjoy life. He was afraid of honouring the bet because he did not want to become a beggar.


Q.10. What did the banker do to kill the lawyer ?

Ans. At three o’clock in the dark and chilly night, the banker took the key of the cell and approached the garden wing. Then he entered a narrow passage and struck a match. He peeped through the window into the cell of the lawyer. He removed the seals from the door and opened it. Then he entered the cell to kill the lawyer.


Q.11. What had the prisoner written in his note ?

Ans. The lawyer wrote in his note that he had studied earthly life for fifteen years. The books which he had studied during his confinement had given him wisdom. He said that death will wipe everything from the face of the earth. Now he hated the bet money. Therefore, he had decided to violate the agreement by escaping from the cell five minutes before the fixed time.

4. Quality -John Galsworthy


Q.1. How did the author know Mr. Gessler ?

Ans. The author knew Mr. Gessler from the days of his youth because he made his father’s boots.


Q.2. Where was Mr. Gessler’s shop situated ?

Ans. There were two little shops let into one, in a small by street, now no more, but then most fashionable place in the west end, a fashionable section in the western part of London.


Q.3. How did Gessler die ?

Ans. Gessler did not know the tricks of modern business. Hence his business went down and he died of his growing old age and starvation.


Q.4. How was his tone when he found those created shoes not his own ?

Ans. At that his tone was not one of anger, nor of sorrow, not even of contempt, but there was in it something quiet that froze the blood.


Q.5. How did he take his work ?

Ans. He took his work as an art. He was not ashamed of it rather proud of his work and maintained his work’s quality even at his life’s cost.


Q. 6. What were the two special qualities of Gessler’s shoes ?

Ans: The considered Gessler as a perfect artist and not as a mere shoe-maker. Gessler’s shoes have two special qualities, the first is that the boots seemed mysterious and wonderful, and the second thing is that they lasted terribly long.


Q.7. Why was the author absent from his shop some times ?

Ans. The shoes made by Mr. Gessler lasted very long. He made shoes of all quality and of the best fittings. Because of this often there was no need of shoes by the author so he remained absent for some days from his shop.


Q. 8. Mr. Gessler was not successful in his trade. Why ? Or, Why was Mr. Gessler not successful in his trade ?

Ans. It is truly said that ‘Excess of anything is bad’. Mr. Gessler was a true shoe-maker but not a true businessman. He never believed in making profits or doing something to enhance his business. He even did not think of leaving the job and shifting into another. Rather he kept on carrying it without having any profit. Ultimately, he died of starvation.


Q.9. What was the author’s opinion about Mr. Gessler as a shoe-maker ?

Ans. The author believed Mr. Gessler to a perfect shoe-maker.. He was good at heart and mind. The author was completely satisfied with the quality and fittings provided to him. He had a deep respect for him and his work. But he could never understand the drastic poverty in which he led his life.


Q.10. Who was Mr. Gessler? How did the author know him ?

Ans. Mr. Gessler was a shoe-maker. The author knew him when he came to his shop to get shoes for his father.


Q.11. The workstyle of Mr. Gessler was unique’. Explain. Or, How did Mr. Gessler work in his shop ?

Ans. Mr Gessler was a German shoe-maker. He worked hard but he took a long time to make one pair of boots. He was slow at work. He worked on boots by himself. He had the same skill and pride in his work as any artist.


Q.12. Suppose, you are one of the customers of Mr. Gessler’s shop. You know how Mr. Gessler struggles for the existence of his trade. What will you suggest to protect the trade from the onslaught of big firms ?

Ans. I will suggest to protect the trade from the onslaught of big firms that firstly he should open his shop every day and on the
He should work related to shoes making promptly and proper time. He should work related to shoes frequently. He should be rigid to his service charge etc. In this way he may be protected from these attentive works.


Q. 13. Big firms are selling their products and making hold on the market through advertisement, offers and big shows. Low scaled and skilled artists are being out of trade. How? Give your own opinion with the reference to the lesson “Quality”.

Ans. Big firms are making of the market. They have enough financial capacity to advertise their products and make a strong market and demand. They get commercialised with pomp and show and take over the market. The small ones are not able to compete or even face them.

5.Sun & Moon -Katherine Mansfield


Q.1. How did Moon’s shoes look like ?

Ans. Moon’s shoes were white with big blobs. on them. They looked beautiful.


Q.2. Who were Sun and Moon ?

Ans. Sun and Moon were brother and sister respectively. They were very young and kept aloof from the adults world.


Q.3. What was the occassion in their house ?

Ans. Their parents have organised a musical concert in which the youngsters were not allowed to participate.


Q. 4. Were Sun and Moon taken care ?

Ans. No, Sun and Moon were not taken good care as all were : busy in their own preparation for the party.


Q.5. What did the mother do before the party ?

Ans. She always told them to be out of her way and telephone her husband to remind him what to bring for the party.


Q.6. Why did the children go to the stairs ?

Ans. The children went to the stairs as they were not allowed to join the party, so to remove their boredown they went there.


Q.7. Did the parents realize the children’s pain ?

Ans. No, the parents did not and could not realize the children’s pain because even at the end when Sun was sobbing, they shouted at him.


Q. 8. What your parents do not like you to do ?

Ans. My parents do not like to attend the party at their house, They thought that they should not see the behaviour of adults at the party.


Q. 9. What happened to the little house in the party ?

Ans. Sun and Moon were very curious to known what the guests did in the party. They did not sleep at night and sat on the top step of the stairs and got a glimpse of the party. They saw that the guest were walking round the table in the dinning-room.


Q.10. When were Sun and Moon allowed to meet the guests ?

Ans. Sun and Moon were not allowed to go inside the hell. They were watching the party standing at the door. Next morning Sun and Moon with their father entered the dining-room, all things were scattered. Thus they were allowed in the morning after the party.


Q.11. What did Sun and Moon’ see in the afternoon ?

Ans. “Sun and Moon’ saw a lot of activity in their house in the afternoon. Many golden chairs were brought in a big cart. Several people came their house with flower pots.


Q.12. What message does Katherine Mansfield want to give to the readers ? Explain. Or, Which type of message is conveyed to the readers by Katherine mansfield.

Ans. Through this story Katherine Mansfield wants to say that there is a great gap between the worlds of the young and adults. The adults want to keep the youngsters away from their world. But this hurts the youngsters very much. They often get disturbed badly and create ill feelings against their seniors. So, both should try, specially the seniors, to reduce this gap and make a proper bridge between them.


Q. 13. Suppose you are son. There was a party at your house last night, but you were not allowed to attend it. How did you feel? How did you face the situation ?

Ans. A dinner party was arranged at my house last night. My mother told me that I would not be allowed to attend it because it was meant for adults. I was filled with sadness but I was helpless. I went to my room with my sister. We could not sleep because we heard a loud noise of clapping from downstairs. I cried that the condition of the dining-room was horrid.


Q. 14. Do you think the young children should also have right to attend the party specially designed for adults. Why not? Give reasons.

Ans. No, I don’t think young children should be allowed to attend parties designed for adults. It is so because in a party one gets informal and if it is designed for the adults then they make such an environment which suits them but not the youngsters. So, the gap should be maintained.


Q. 15. A young boy is sometimes reprimanded when he interferes while the elders are talking. Have you ever faced such a situation ? Write your views or feelings.

Ans. Sometimes a young boy is reprimanded when he interferes while the elders are talking. I have also faced such situation many times. I have an elder brother who often sits with his friends and discusses God knows what. But if he finds me near him he shouts at me and tells me to go away from there.

6. Two Horizons -Binapani Mohanty


Q.1. Comment on the bond between the mother and her daughter.

Ans. The bond between the mother and her daughter is that of love, affection and above all womanhood in Indian background.


Q.2. Why is the daughter filled with a sense of weariness and emptiness? Have you ever experienced like her ?

Ans. Daughter’s dream vanished in her in-laws house. She could not find the situation favourable according to her desire and need. No, I have not experienced it yet and pray to God not to put me in such hostile situation.


Q.3. What did the daughter learn from her mother ?

Ans. The daughter learned the secret of laughter from her mother. She also learned the mantra of loving pain and hardship and of loving life from her mother.


Q. 4. What did the mother feel after going through her daughter’s letter ?

Ans. The mother felt very happy after reading her daughter’s letter. Because, it had come after a very long time. She answered her daughter with a sense of high optimism. She wrote, “I believe you can touch the horizon of that infinite.


Q. 5. What picture of the statue of women in the family is represented in Two horizons’?

Ans. In the story “Two Horizons’ we find a realistic picture of the status of Indian women in the family. The mother represents the traditional woman while the daugher is the modern woman. They have to suffer silently in the family.


Q.6. What had the mother advised her daughter ?

Ans. The mother advised her daughter that the circle of fulfilment is always limited while unfulfillment is boundless.


Q.7. Comment on the bond between the mother and her daughter .

Ans. The mother is the traditional Indian woman while her daughter is the modern woman. The daughter considers her mother to be an ideal woman. She writes a letter to her mother, telling her that she has failed to achieve her fulfilment in her mind. : The mother consoles her daughter by telling her that the circle of fulfilment is limited while unfulfillment is boundless and she will have to seek the key to fulfilment within herself.


Q. 8. Point out the features of the two letters in terms of their format, language and tone ?

Ans. The features of two letters are simple exchange of love and affection between a mother and an educated middle-class daughter. The format of the language is old. The language is simple but the tone of the daughter is reactionary. Mother’s tone of language is suggestive.


Q.9. “It was only your existence inside me that made me laugh on; Why does the daughter say so ? What does she mean by laugh on; ?

Ans. The words ‘laugh on’ have mysterious sense of approach. The daughter has got an adverse situation in her in-laws house. Any how she entertains herself recalling in her memory the simple teaching and nature of her own mother.


Q.10. ‘Nobody can ever tell you that you didn’t know how to bring up your daughter’! What does bring up your daughter imply here ?

Ans. ‘Bring up your daughter is used in ironical sense. The daughter bears on and tolerates every injustice with her with stoic patience. If there is any complain against the daughter, her own mother is charged for it. A daughter is taught by her mother how to remain peacefully in her in-laws house. This is ironical situation yet found in our country, so it has been said like that.


Q.11. Sketch the character of the mother. How far does your mother resemble her ?

Ans. Mother is an example of stoic patience, love and affection for her daughter. She warns her daughter not to fill in warmth of male members. Mother has experienced the strange behaviour of the daughter’s father. She expresses it in her letter. My mother is a bit different. She never discourages me. She is always ready to quarrel with anyone provided she finds me at right assertion.


Q.12. Why is the daughter filled with a sense of weariness and emptiness ?

Ans. In the story “Two Horizons’, the daughter tells her mother in a letter that she is filled with a sense of weariness and emptiness. She has performed her duties without a word of protest. Her life has become so mechanical that she is now filled with a sense of weariness and emptiness. There are no great worries at home but she feels lonely and restless.


Q.13. How does the mother analyse the situation? Do you agree with her analysis and the solution that she suggests ?

Ans. The mother analyses the situation very carefully. She understands everything. No, I don’t agree with such false notion and long-term optimism. I believe in tit for tat and immediate decision. I believe girls or women must be respected in every house and contemporary society.


Q. 14. What picture of the status of woman in the family is represented in Two Horizons ? Do you find any trace of gene ration gap in the approach to life shown by the mother and her daughter ?

Ans. Yes, the status of woman has been depicted in innocent manner. There are two prime instances of generation gap between the daughter and the mother. The daughter does not like bondage but the mother teaches her to bear everything with stoic patience. Another example is the realistic approach of the daughter. She does not like to remain in false dream.

7. Love Defiled -By Giridhar Jha


Q. 1. Has the goodness of someone ever made you feel very mean ?

Ans. Yes, goodness of some elder members in my family and friends have made me to realize my follies and mistakes. I learn much from my elders, senior friends and teachers.


Q. 2. Why did the narrator leave the girl he loved so passionately? Was he honest in his relation ?

Ans. The narrator left the girl he loved so passionately because his parents and relatives opposed their marriage.


Q.3. How did the narrator defile love ?

Ans. The narrator loved his girlfriend passionately for eight years. He refused to marry her because his parents and relatives Were opposed to their marriage. He defined love by betraying his girlfriend.


Q.4. Live in relationship is against Is against our social values’. Explain.

Ans. On the basis of the story ‘Love Defiled “Live in relation ship is against our social values’. The meaning of this line is ‘with out permission of parents, getting, marry and living in relationship is against social values.


Q.5. ‘It was so typical of her witty to the hilt, understanding to a fault.? Sketch the character of the girl in the light of this statement.

Ans. The girl was very gentle in nature. She represents the latest proto type of modern educated girl. She feels a kind of remorse in her. But at once she is happy to meet the narrator.


Q. 6. Was the narrator honest in his relation with the girl ?

Ans. The narrator loved the girl passionately for eight years but he betrayed her. He refused to marry her owing to parental opposition. So, he was not honest in his relation with the girl.


Q.7. Why did the narrator give up the ambition to become an IAS officer ?

Ans. The narrator gave up the ambition to become an I.A.S. Officer, because he had an impartial assessment of his grey cells, coupled with his ability to burn the midnight oil. He had already decided to spare the burocracy from himself falling back, upon journalism, which his girlfriend always wanted him to pursue.


Q.8. “The louder I talked about my virtues, the faster I made a fool of myself.? Sketch the character of the narrator in the light of his statement. Or, Give a character-sketch of the narrator of the story ‘Love’ Defiled ;

Ans. The character of the narrator of the story ‘Love Defiled’ is : not impressive. He was selfish and mean. When he talked about his imaginary virtues, he made a fool of himself. He was not sincere in love. He loved a beautiful girl for eight years. He refused to marry her owing to parental opposition to their marriage. The girl loved her deeply but he betrayed her.


Q.9. For the first time in my life, I realised I was also ugly from within and despite our eight years togetherness, her goodness had not rubbed off on me in any way.’ What made the narrator feel so ?

Ans. The narrator betrayed the girl he loved for eight years but she forgave him. When her marriage was fixed, she invited him to her wedding reception. He met her husband who was a handsome IAS officer. The narrator was filled with remorse because the girl had forgiven him. So, the narrator realised that he was also ugly from within.


Q.10. “It was so typical of ber-witty to the hilt, understand ing to a fault.’ Sketch the character of the girl in the light of this statement. Or, Give a character-sketch of the girl in the story ‘Love Deliled.

Ans. The character of the girl in the story ‘Love Defiled impresses us. She wa
She was very intelligent and witty. She was not sen-timental. She was aware of the realities of life. So, she could face a difficult situation badly. She loved the narrator deeply and wanted to marry her. When he refused to marry her, she was not disappointed. She was honest and truthful. She invited the narrator to Wedding and introduced him to her husband. She was so noble that she had for- given him.

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